Basel: Johannem Hervagium, Mense Augusto, 1537. Loose_leaf. Folio. Period vellum with title in ink. Collation:  1-587  p. + Ornamental capitals and diagrams in text. Latin text with Greek letters used for designating points on geometric diagrams. Preface present. Paper used for printing title and last pages with some defects resulting in tears around defects. The title page has been restored along the gutter with a stub of old paper. The bottom right corner of title page restored with backing from other paper. The original free end papers have been replaced by early 18th century paper having amoral watermark (front) common to paper from the Hague or Leiden. Some of the tears on title page and end page repaired with paste. One 4-6 inch closed tear on p. 181 repaired. Minor damp staining on head and tail of several signatures not affecting text. This is the first Latin edition of the Herwagen Euclid which contains the complete works derived from the 1505 translation of Bartolomeo Zanetti and comments by Campanus, Hypiciles, and others, the very scarce preface of Philip Melanchthon, and first appearance of the fragment with four theorems by Levi. Censors often removed the preface from many copies. It is rare to find this preface present. There are ink marginal notes in Latin in an earlier hand on the first two pages of the preface and Greek on p. 6 at the end of Euclid's definitions from Campanus. These could have been done by the Danish astronomer Longomontanus whose signature is on the title page. Very Good. Item #0000438
Provenance: Written on the title page to the left of publisher and date of publication: "Ex lib. Christian S. Longomans." This signature of Christian Severin known as Longomontanus (1562-1647) is very rare.. Longomontanus was a Danish astronomer and pupil of Tycho Brahe. In 1607 Longomontanus became "was professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Copenhage, where he remained until his death." (DSB) Severin inherited the restoration of astronomy program of Tycho Brahe upon Brahe's death in 1601. The two remaining tacks to complete were: "selection and integration of data into accounts of the motions of the planets, and the representation of the entire program in the form of a systematic treatise." (DSB) This was fulfilled in the publication by Severin, Astronomia danica published in 1622 which was reprinted twice (1640, 1663) despite the publication of Kepler's Tabulae Rudolphinae in 1627. Severin had a good "skill at manipulating observational data, and he may have played an important role in Tycho's remarkable research on the lunar theory." (DSB)Armorial bookplate of Sir Alexander Campbell of Cesnok who was one of the "Senators of the College of Justice and one of the Lords of Her Majesties most Honorable Privy Counsell & Exchequer &C: 1707." This appears to be the book plate belonging to Alexander (Hume) Campbell who had married Margaret Campbell, middle daughter of Sir George Campbell of Cesnock and took the name Campbell. His official name was Alexander Hume Campbell (1657-1740), 2nd Earl of Marchmont, 2nd Lord Polwarth and was a Scottish nobleman, politician and judge. He was a member of the Scottish Parliament for Berwickshire, was an advocate of the union with England (and thus the inclusion of 1707 on the amoral book plate), Lord Clerk Register, envoy to Denmark (from 1716-1733), and succeeded his father to the earldom in 1724, and was a Scottish representative peer (1727-1734). It was probably during his visit to Denmark as envoy that Sir Alexander Campbell purchased or received Severin's copy of Euclid's Elements. (Thomas-Stanford, 9; Houzeau-Lancaster 832; Adams H. 974).